Hello there.
I know this might possibly be a duplicate of some posts but I didn't find anything in this forum that I didn't either
tried already or that suits my problem.

As you can get from the title i tried to install Kali Linux next to a Windows 10 installation.
Windows 10 already installed and works fine (For some mystery reasons it is still working fine )
Let me explain how i installed and what i tried to fix my problems:

(At this point I want to say that I already installed/reinstalled everything several times. i guess about 5-6 times or so...)

- Got the kali iso from official download website.
- Confirmed the checksum with the guide from www.kali.org -> everything ok
- Made Bootable USB Stick with the following command: sudo dd if=kali-linux-2016.2-amd64.iso of=/dev/disk2 bs=1m (also fine as far as i can confirm that)
- Made a free partition in Windows 10 of 150 GB space

- Kept UEFI enabled! (tried the whole thing also with legacy BIOS but didn't help me out)
- Disable Secure Boot in BIOS
- Disabled Fast Boot in Windows energy settings

- Booted the USB Stick from the Boot Manager
- Started the GUI installation

Let me skip the Language/ Network part...

For the partitioning I tried different ways:
- Manual with automatical partitioning
- Manual with manual partition selection (EFI partition, Ext4, Swap ...)
- Guided

Everything was fine. I guess...

But this **** GRUB loader just does not appear while booting.
He is there, installed, i saw it when i looked from live kali.
I also run the command bcdedit /set {bootmgr} /EFI/Kali/grub...efi
But that didnt help.
I tried to repair the GRUB loader with these commands:
mount /dev/sda3 /mnt
mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
mount --bind /dev/pts /mnt/dev/pts
mount --bind /proc /mnt/proc
mount --bind /sys /mnt/sys
chroot /mnt
grub-install /dev/sda
umount /mnt/dev/pts
umount /mnt/dev
umount /mnt/proc
umount /mnt/sys
umount /mnt

But at the command grub-install /dev/sda, it said that no EFI partition was found.

I also tried some more stuff but honestly i dont remember everythiing

I would be very grateful if you could present me a solution.
Even though I have already tried a lot of things;
I would like to bring the whole thing to run and would like to understand it.