Hi all! I have a pentesting exam this weekend and am hoping to resolve this quickly, hence the post despite my not having researched EVERY possible solution just yet:

1. Until a month ago I was dual-booting Kali and Windows 10 via GRUB (installed using Kali installer).
2. My GPU died a month ago and I removed motherboard (RMAed for good measure, and they returned the same one), CPU, SSD, and memory. Motherboard, CPU, SSD and memory are now back in (and were never faulty). I just received replacement GPU via RMA; it is mostly identical to the last one (a PowerColor 5600XT 6GB).
3. Upon startup with new GPU I elected to reset the fTPM when asked whether to reset it or not.
4. Windows works perfectly again now that I have a new GPU.
5. System boots straight to Windows.
6. I can access the GRUB(2) menu via a Super Grub2 Disk or a Kali Live USB, using either the current stable Live ISO or the current weekly ISO. HOWEVER, I get only a black screen (waited an hour--still nothing more) when booting to the Kali partition on the SSD (hd1/gpt5), and I get the following kernel panic when attempting to boot into Live mode. I have tested this with two different USB sticks using a plethora of Rufus options. I have also tried to use nolapic, IOMMN disabling, TPM disabling, and other tricks to no avail. Fast boot has always been disabled. I'm not sure where the secure boot setting is in my B450M DS3H motherboard bios, but I doubt that's the issue. FWIW my firmware version is F63a.

Kernel panic image: https://imgur.com/a/iBFBDuD

Text includes "Kernel panic - not syncing: Fatal exception in interrupt" and "Kernel offset: 0x31c00000"

Any thoughts?